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Over the years, it has taken different forms with regard to the reason for carrying out such action by perpetrators. Kidnapping is a global phenomenon which has been of great challenge to every government of affected countries. In recent times, the crime of kidnapping has been linked to political intents where victims are kidnapped to push forward a political statement Cambodian Law of Kidnapping and Trafficking. It has also been related to the issue of terrorism which has threatened global security Osaghae, Another reason for kidnapping which has recently gained prominence in Nigeria is kidnapping for ransom.
Each and every one of these reasons has in one way or the other threatened the national security of countries where such crime is perpetrated. Its resultant effects have been the proliferation of arms and the parting of large sums of money to kidnappers from victims. This has therefore been a major threat to national security of any nation.
As a matter of importance to the survival of any nation, the issue of national security becomes paramount in the policies of government. This is as a result of the fact that the survival of the political, economic, social and diplomatic sovereignty of any nation depends highly on the national security of that nation Yun, Hostage Taking and Kidnapping in Terrorism. The concept of national security is wide with different definitions; as there is no universally accepted definition of national security.
S National Security and African Development.
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A more comprehensive and all-emcompassing world-view definition of national security was made by President Barack Obama in the context of the US which can also be adopted by other nations. He defined national security as the security of the US, its citizens, partners and allies, a strong innovative and growing economy and an open international economic system that promotes opportunity and prosperity. He added that national security also encompass the respect for universal values at home and around the world and an international order that promotes peace, security, and opportunity through stronger cooperation to meet global challenges International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Assembly Resolution, The crime of kidnapping however threatens the very elements of this definition which is encompassed in national development which should therefore be of serious national concern.
In Nigeria, the crime of kidnapping gained prominence lately with the political strives of militants of the Niger Delta region of the South-South Nigeria Barack, The kidnapping of expatriates in Nigeria threatens the very economic base of the nation which is oil exploration. To further push forward their political statement, the militants stepped up their criminal acts by kidnapping Nigerians of high political status or political figures.
This eventually led to the Federal Government of Nigeria FGN taking decisive steps in checking the activities of militants which eventually resulted in the amnesty programme of the Late President Umar Yar Adua Akpan, Unfortunately, the business of kidnapping spread to other areas of the country especially in the Eastern part of Nigeria and metamorphosed into a business mostly perpetrated by youths to make money. Presently, the rate of kidnapping in Nigeria, in spite of the effort of police and other security agencies has been quite worrisome and poses a great challenge to the national security of the country.
It has stalled business activities in some areas as well created fear in the minds of Nigerians. The kidnapping of some journalists around Abia state was regarded as the height of the insensitivity of kidnappers Egwemi, This has prompted the government of Nigeria to initiate strategies to check kidnapping in the country. There is however the need for government to initiate more strategies to curb the menace of kidnapping which threatens the national security of Nigeria. Kidnapping took a rather dramatic dimension in Nigeria recently with its spread to other areas of the country from the Niger Delta region.
Its impact on the nation has been quite enormous as it affects the socio-economic cum political lives of average Nigerians. This study in the quest of finding solution to the menace of kidnapping in Nigeria, seeks to answer the following question. The specific objectives of this study therefore are:. At the inception of democracy in Nigeria kidnapping cases were perpetuated by militants of the Niger Delta who were fighting for a common course of resource control.
The capabilities of the militants to carry out attack especially in engagement with the military shows the level of security deterioration in the Niger Delta region. Likewise, the kidnapping of people which has bedevilled the society recently is also perpetuated by youths of the society. This study therefore seeks to establish that if opportunities of good education, employment and an environment for self sustenance are provided for these youths, the problem of kidnapping will be easily curbed. It also seeks to establish that a proper training and equipping of the security agencies will go a long way in reducing crimes especially kidnapping incidences.
The issue of kidnapping could be relatively new to Nigeria compared to other countries. This therefore poses a great challenge to the government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in its combating of crime and maintaining national security. This paper therefore will be beneficial to the government of Nigeria in putting in place machineries to fight against this menace.
It will also be beneficial to security agencies who are directly or indirectly involved in curbing the problem of kidnapping in the country. This study will also add to the existing literature and body of knowledge on the topical issue of kidnapping as it relates to the issue of national security especially in Nigeria. It will also be a reference material for subsequent research work. What this research will achieve in the theoretical concept of the iron law of responsibility. This law states that in a long run, those who do not use power in ways that society considers responsible will tend to lose it.
The implication of this theoretical constant is that those multinationals organization that are blind towards the provision of infrastructure and social amenities to the host communities will eventually have opposition at a long run. A typical example is the agitation of the Niger — Delta situation which has affected the production of crude oil by multinational companies operating the region, which SHELL is a Victim.
There are so many social threats in the region like kidnapping, pipe lines destruction, militant killing among others.
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Education is not the cause of unemployment per se but the skill required in the relevant areas. The reason for this is that individuals in the past make the opinions and attitudes to the world of work and the vocation they intend to take up in the future. This dictates the discipline they intend to pursue to be skilled. The right of choice of vocations by individuals is now violated by parents most especially by mothers without measuring the ability of their choice with capability of those for whom they decide for.
Individuals come out and get dissatisfied with the jobs available because they do not have the skills in the relevant areas; hence there is lack of job satisfaction. Oladiti describes job satisfaction as the extent to which a person is satisfied by the content and the environment of work. Conspiracy and proposal to commit coup d'etat, rebellion or insurrection. The conspiracy and proposal to commit rebellion or insurrection shall be punished respectively, by prision correccional in its maximum period and a fine which shall not exceed five thousand pesos P 5, Disloyalty of public officers or employees.
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Reinstated by E. Inciting a rebellion or insurrection. Sedition; How committed. To prevent the promulgation or execution of any law or the holding of any popular election;. To prevent the National Government, or any provincial or municipal government or any public officer thereof from freely exercising its or his functions, or prevent the execution of any administrative order;.
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To inflict any act of hate or revenge upon the person or property of any public officer or employee;. To commit, for any political or social end, any act of hate or revenge against private persons or any social class; and. To despoil, for any political or social end, any person, municipality or province, or the National Government or the Government of the United States , of all its property or any part thereof. Penalty for sedition. Other persons participating therein shall suffer the penalty of prision correccional in its maximum period and a fine not exceeding 5, pesos.
Conspiracy to commit sedition. Inciting to sedition. Act tending to prevent the meeting of the Assembly and similar bodies. Disturbance of proceedings. Violation of parliamentary immunity. Illegal assemblies. Persons merely present at such meeting shall suffer the penalty of arresto mayor , unless they are armed, in which case the penalty shall be prision correccional.
If any person present at the meeting carries an unlicensed firearm, it shall be presumed that the purpose of said meeting, insofar as he is concerned, is to commit acts punishable under this Code, and he shall be considered a leader or organizer of the meeting within the purview of the preceding paragraph. As used in this article, the word "meeting" shall be understood to include a gathering or group, whether in a fixed place or moving. Illegal associations. Mere members of said associations shall suffer the penalty of arresto mayor. Direct assaults.
If none of these circumstances be present, the penalty of prision correccional in its minimum period and a fine not exceeding P pesos shall be imposed. Indirect assaults. Disobedience to summons issued by the National Assembly, its committees or subcommittees, by the Constitutional Commissions, its committees, subcommittees or divisions.